Anyone who ever visited Yogyakarta city would not be complete, if not visit Prambanan Temple. Presenting a rich historical relic when explored more deeply, let alone related to the myth and history.
Sukarno said “Never forget history once”. Because history makes many lessons to prepare for the future. Let’s get to know more with this temple.
History of Prambanan
Compiled from various sources Prambanan Temple is a group of temples built by Sanjaya Dynasty kings in the IX century.
The discovery of the name Pikatan name on the temple raises the opinion that this temple was built by Rakai Pikatan which was then completed by Rakai Balitung based on the inscription of berangka 856 M “Siwargrarha inscription” as a political manifest to confirm its position as a great king.
The inscription Siwargrarha year 856 AD issued by Rakai Pikatan is unknown origin, now stored in the National Museum of Jakarta.
This inscription began to attract attention after J.G. De Casparis managed to decipher and discuss it. According to Casparis there are three important things in the prasati, namely the language is the oldest example of inscriptions that date in javanese poetry written contents of materials or events of history is very important from the mid-century IX M.
In it there is a detailed description of a “cluster of temples”, something unique in ancient Javanese epigraphy. From the above description of the interesting historical events and descriptions of the construction of cluster of temples. The historical event in question is a war between Balaputeradewa from the Sailendra family against Rakai Pikatan from the Sanjaya family.
Balaputeradewa lost and fled to Sumatra. The consolidation of Rakai Pikatan’s royal family then became the beginning of a new period that needed to be inaugurated by the construction of a large temple cluster. In 1991 this temple was designated as a world heritage site by UNESCO.
There is an inscription that has been found and berangka year 856 AD Shivagrha Inscription. And based on the Shivagrha Inscription, it is said that Prambanan Temple was built in honor of Lord Shiva which is the greatest Hindu god.
And based on that inscription, it is mentioned that this temple was first named as Shiva-grha which means Shiva’s House and also called Shiva-laya which means the Shiva Empire.
The history of Prambanan Temple also can not be separated from the inscription Shivagrha also mentioned about the ongoing of a large project that also took place simultaneously with the construction of Prambanan Temple. The big project that takes place on the exterior of this enclave is the Opak River project.
Opak River is a large river that flows north of Prambanan Temple. It was mentioned that the opaque river originally flowed from the north of the temple complex towards the east, then diverted its flow to the temple.
Opak river cutting is done by cutting the flow of water in the north and diverted directly to the south just past the east of Prambanan Temple.
The history of Prambanan temple ended when the Mataram Kingdom Palace shifted and moved to East Java. Believed to be the cause of the removal of the central government location was caused by a large eruption of Mount Merapi which is located in the north of the temple.
Another cause is the existence of various major rebellions that occurred in the Sanjaya Dynasty itself. And moved the center of government is done by Mpu Sindok in 930 AD which later founded the Isyana Dynasty.
After being abandoned, Prambanan Temple gradually began to decay and eventually suffered massive destruction due to a major earthquake that occurred in the 16th century.
And finally Prambanan Temple is really only a small debris that amounted to hundreds. But even so the surrounding community is still very respectful of the existence of the ruins of the temple to the extent that came the famous legend Roro Jonggrang.
Reinvention and Restoration Prambanan Temple
After hundreds of years of abandonment and debris left, the history of Prambanan temple began to see the light after the British interested to restore the glory of this temple.
Colin Mackenzie is a Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles man by chance found the ruins of Prambanan Temple and assigned to excavate. But it did not go smoothly, and the ruins still remain dormant.
Several restorations were carried out by the Dutch government in 1880, 1918, and finally a large restoration in 1930 and ended in 1953 which was inaugurated directly by Indonesia’s first president Soekarno.
In the history of Prambanan temple, in 2006 this temple was severely damaged as a result of an earthquake that shook the region of Yogyakarta and surrounding areas. However, this temple immediately get a thorough improvement
The Beautiful at Prambanan Temple
Prambanan Temple or Shiwa Temple is also often referred to as Roro Jonggrang temple related to the legend that tells about a virgin who jonggrang (tall) who is the daughter of King Boko.
The edge of the temple is bordered by a balustrade fence decorated with reliefs of Ramayana stories that can be enjoyed by pradaksina (walking around the temple with the center of the temple always to our right) through the alley. The Prambanan temple complex was built by the Sanjaya Wajca Kings (Dinasty) in the 9th century.
Prambanan temple is a temple complex with the main temple facing east, with the overall shape resembling mountains at wayang kulit as high as 47 meters. Hinduism recognizes Tri Murti consisting of God Brahma as the Creator, Lord Vishnu as the Preserver, Lord Shiwa as the Destroyer.
The main chamber of the main temple is occupied by God Shiwa as the Maha Dewa so it can be concluded Prambanan temple is Shiwa temple. Prambanan temple or Shiwa temple is also often referred to as Loro Jonggrang temple related to the legend that tells about a virgin who jonggrang or tall girl, daughter of King Boko who built his kingdom on the hill south of Prambanan temple complex.
The edge of the temple is lined with balustrades, which are decorated with Ramayana reliefs that can be enjoyed when we walk around the temple with the center of the temple always to our right through the alley. The story continues on the railing of the Brahma temple on the left (south) of the main temple.
While on the fence of the ledge of Wishnu temple which is located on the right (north) of the main temple, sculptured Kresnadipayana relief story depicting the childhood story of King Krishna as the incarnation of Lord Vishnu in eradicating the arrogance that is about to hit the world. The main temple chamber facing north contains Durga empress Dewa Shiwa’s shrine, but most people call it Roro Jonggrang statue.
The Origin of Prambanan Temple Name
The name Prambanan, derived from the name of the village where this temple stands, is allegedly a change of the name of the Javanese dialect of the Hindu theologian term Brahman meaning “Brahman the Great” ie Brahman or ultimate reality of the highest and greatest that can not be described, which is often equated with the concept of God in Hinduism.
Another opinion assumes that the Brahman may refer to the glorious period of this temple which was once filled with brahmins. Another opinion suggests that the name “Prambanan” is derived from the root of the word mban in the Javanese language meaning to bear or bear the task, referring to the Hindu gods who carry out the task of organizing and running the harmony of the universe.
The original name of this Hindu temple complex is the name of Sanskrit; Siwagrha (Siwa Shiva) or Siwalaya (Shiva’s World), based on the Siwagrha Inscription dated 778 Saka (856 AD).
Trimurti is glorified in this temple complex with its three main temples glorifying Brahma, Shiva, and Vishnu. But Shiva Mahadewa who occupies the main room in the temple of Shiva is the most glorified deity in this temple complex.
Folklore of Prambanan Temple
Once upon a time there was a great empire called Prambanan. His people live in tranquility and peace. But what happens next? The kingdom of Prambanan was attacked and colonized by Pengging country.
The serenity of the Prambanan Kingdom is disturbed. The soldiers were unable to face the Pengging forces. Finally, the kingdom of Prambanan is controlled by Pengging, and led by Bandung Bondowoso. Bandung Bondowoso is a cruel ruler.
“Anyone who does not obey my orders will be severely punished!”, Said Bandung Bondowoso to his people. Bandung Bondowoso is a sakti and has jinns. Not long how powerful, Bandung Bondowoso likes to observe the movements of Loro Jonggrang, the beautiful daughter of Prambanan King.
“Beautiful nian princess. I want him to be my queen, “thought Bandung Bondowoso.
The next day, Bondowoso approached Loro Jonggrang.
“You are very beautiful, will you be my queen?”, Question Bandung Bondowoso to Loro Jonggrang.
Loro Jonggrang gasped, hearing Bondowoso’s question. “This man is very presumptuous, do not know me immediately want me to be queen”, said Loro Jongrang in the heart. “What should I do?”
Loro Jonggrang became confused. His mind was spinning. If he refuses, then Bandung Bondowoso will be furious and endanger his family and the people of Prambanan. To say yes was not possible, because Loro Jonggrang did not like the Bandung Bondowoso.
“How, Loro Jonggrang?” Urged Bondowoso.
Finally Loro Jonggrang got the idea. “I am willing to be your master’s wife, but there is a condition,” he said. “What is the condition? Want an abundance of treasures? Or a magnificent Palace? “. “Not that, my lord,” said Loro Jonggrang.
I ask a temple, the total must one thousands. “A thousand pieces?” Bondowoso shouted. “Yes, and the temple must be finished overnight.” Bandung Bondowoso stared at Loro Jonggrang, his lips quivering with anger.
Since then Bandung Bondowoso think how to make 1000 temples. Finally he asked his advisor. “I believe my master can make the temple with the help of Jin!”, Said the advisor.
“Yes, your suggestion is right, prepare the equipment I need!”
Once the equipment is prepared. Bandung Bondowoso stands in front of the stone altar. Her arms were spread wide. “Jinn, Help me!” She shouted in a thunderous voice.
Soon the sky became dark. The wind was roaring. A moment later, the troops of jinn are already surrounding the Bandung Bondowoso. “What should we do?” Asked the jinn leader.
“Help me build a thousand temples,” pleaded Bandung Bondowoso.
The jinn immediately moved to and fro, carrying out their respective duties. In a short time the temple building has been arranged almost reaching a thousand pieces. Meanwhile, Loro Jonggrang secretly observes from a distance.
He was worried, knowing that Bondowoso was assisted by the jinn forces. “Well, how is this?”, Said Loro Jonggrang in the heart. He’s looking for sense.
The royal ladies were told to assemble and be assigned to collect the straw.
“Fuel all the hay!” Orders Loro Jonggrang.
Some other ladies were told to pound the mortar. Dung … dung … dung! A rush of red shone into the sky with a frenzied voice, making it look like a dawning dawn. The Jinns thought dawn was breaking.
“Well, the sun will rise!” Cried the genie. “We must leave immediately before our bodies are burned by the sun,” continued the other genie. The jinns scattered away leaving that place.
Bandung Bondowoso was surprised to see panic jin troop. In the morning, Bandung Bondowoso invites Loro Jonggrang to the temple. “The temple you asked for is standing!”. Loro Jonggrang immediately counted the number of the temple. Apparently the number is only 999 pieces!.
“The number is less than one!” Cried Loro Jonggrang. “That means you have failed to qualify me.” Bandung Bondowoso surprised to know the shortcomings.
He became very angry. “It is impossible …”, said Bondowoso while gazing sharply at Loro Jonggrang. “Then you’re the one who completes it!” He said, pointing his finger at Loro Jonggrang. Wonderful! Loro Jonggrang immediately turned into a stone statue. Until now the temples are still there and located in the region of Prambanan, Central Java and called Loro Jonggrang Temple.
According to the beliefs of the surrounding community, these lovers will actually break up after entering this room. Conversely, if married couples will further strengthen the wedding ropes of woven marriage.
Another story, which is related to the things that would unexpectedly appear what if the visitors behave improperly in the temple location. Like acting at will, by climbing the temple and smoking in the temple environment. Some have also experienced possessions if they behave rudely.
Ticket & Facilities in Prambanan Temple
Tourists shall be charged with the following fees:
Local tourist is Rp. 30.000, – (adult), Rp. 15,000 (children 3-6 years old)
Foreign tourists are USD $ 18.
Prambanan Package and Ratu Boko Temple Rp.45.000, –
The facilities there can be enjoyed
For those of you who bring a private vehicle, you do not have to worry to park the vehicle because around the park, the manager of Prambanan temple has provided ample parking space to accommodate two-wheeled vehicles, four even bus though.
If you want to pray, you can do it in the mosque which is located across the street of Prambanan temple. Not difficult to go to the mosque because in addition to its location which is also located right on the edge of the road, large and magnificent buildings make this mosque can be seen easily.
If you come at night and want to stay while waiting for tomorrow morning, you can find some alternative lodging and hotel around Prambanan temple. But so far I just found three hotels located not far from Prambanan Temple, the Temple View Hotel, Puri Devata Resort and Hotel Edotel Kalasan (located across the street of Prambanan temple)
Prambanan Museum is located in the Prambanan Temple complex, Yogyakarta. Here there are various historical relics such as relics of the megalithic period, ancient statues, paintings, forms of restoration of the temple from year to year, and so forth. Entrance to this museum area is FREE, aka no cost. In the plaza presented traditional music of Yogyakarta that adds charm of the typical atmosphere of the palace.
I forgot how much the rent is
Route Towards Prambanan Temple
The location of Prambanan Temple from Jogja city is very easy. You can go by road either public transportation or private vehicle. Travel from Yogyakarta for approximately 30 kilometers to the Northeast, can be reached for approximately 30 minutes. From downtown Jogja you can go straight to Jl.Solo, and continue until reaching gate boundary of province of Central Java – DIY.
From the city limits Prambanan Temple is visible on your left. From here you live forward a little about 500 meters to arrive at the first red light junction after the gate of the city limits. Well the location of Prambanan temple exactly the entrance is on your left (north). We also can take the Trans Jogja bus enough to pay Rp. 4000,- or around 1 Dollar.
Holiday Tips To Prambanan Temple
1. If you want to take a look good looking come a bit early or late afternoon. Sunlight support will certainly beautify the look of photos taken.
2. Bring an umbrella if possible so do not rent umbrellas (If come morning before noon). There can also be rented at varied prices ranging from Rp. 5,000- Rp. 10,000.
3. Prepare the energy due to the rather distant route when returning home. Also provide mineral water.
4. Camera with okay resolution